Open Standards – Open
standards are publicly available specifications
that offer a wealth of economic and technological
benefits. Governments around the world are
considering mandating open standards, especially
in the area of document formats.
Role of Defaults - Defaults are
pre-selected options chosen by the manufacturer or
the software developer. Users tend to defer to
these pre-selected options. Policymakers can take
advantage of this deference in setting defaults
How Software (and Architecture) Affects
Users - This work has largely focused
on identifying features or characteristics of code
that have significance in regulating behavior.
These characteristics are manipulable and are
considered governance characteristics, because of
their ability to differentially influence
behavior. This work has led us to focus on open
standards and defaults.
Development of Software - This
work focuses on the development of software with
an emphasis on the role of several institutions
including universities, firms, consortia, and the
open source movement is examined. For each
institution, the analysis examines their internal
processes and norms that affect the development
process. The analysis also examines how each
institution emphasizes different social and
technical attributes that are embedded in code.
How Government Can Shape Software
- Government can influence the development of code
in many ways. This section focuses on the
government’s regulatory power, fiscal power, and
the ability to influence intellectual property
Kesan, J. P., & Shah, R. C. (2005). Shaping
Code. Harvard Journal of Law &
Technology, 18(2), 319-399.
History of the Internet - The
Internet's origins date back to the 1960s with
government funded research into computer networks.
This work traces the history and implications of
shifting control over the Internet to the private
sector, a process called privatization.